Ultimate guide to travel vaccines

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1. introduction

Heading abroad to new tropical destinations can be rewarding, scary, exhilarating, and life changing all at the same time. With new and unfamiliar sights and experiences at every stride, you’re literally leaving your comfort zone with every step. Whether you’re planning an action packed gap year, an exploration into the depths of East Asia, or even a humanitarian aid role in a Central American disaster zone, plenty of planning and prep work can help set you on the right path. 

It’s common sense that new experiences will expose you to new risks. Similiarly, travelling to foreign, exciting (and at times undeveloped and unhygienic) places exposes you to bacterial, fungal and parasitic illnesses that you might not be accustomed to back home. Poor sanitation and unwashed food in warm and moist countries are the likeliest culprits when it comes to harbouring the growth of organisms, which can lead to infections. As well, diseases are often passed on from insects and bug bites, flies and even swimming in contaminated water. 

But all of this shouldn’t stop you from going out there and exploring the world. Armed with the knowledge in this guide, you’re sure to be set for an action packed safe and healthy adventure!

 

2. booking in your jabs

booking injections

It may seem like you’ve got a long bridge to climb before you find yourself on your travels. With flights to book, tours to organise, visas to process; the to-do list can seem a little daunting! Luckily booking in your jabs is pretty straightforward when you follow our tips.

  • medical
  • Make an appointment

    Let your doctor (or travel clinic) know where you’ll be heading to before your appointment. Any good general practitioner should already have a solid knowledge of the health and safety conditions of your destination, but it’s a good idea to give them a heads up. 

  • booking injections

  • How soon should I book in my jabs?

    Get your vaccinations booked in at least six to eight weeks before you’re due to travel. This gives your body time to acclimatise to the vaccine before your travels and prepare for any side-affects.

  • vaccine time limitations
  • How long do they last?

    Vaccinations will only provide protection for a set period of time. Once this time has elapsed you’ll need a booster if you plan on heading abroad again. Here's how long the common vaccines last. 
    Diphtheria/Tetanus/Polio: 10 years
    Hepatitis A: Long term
    Hepatitis B: 10 years 
    Japanese B Encephalitis: 1 year 
    Rabies: 1-2 years 
    Tick Borne Encephalitis: 1-3 years 
    Typhoid: 3 years 
    Yellow fever: 10 years

  • how much do they cost

  • How much do they cost?

    Whilst you can’t put a price on your health, it can always pay to save a buck or two before a big trip. Depending on the vaccination you need, you may be able to receive your shots free of charge. Of course, if there are multiple health risks in the region you’re visiting, the cost of vaccinations can quickly add up. Free vaccines tend to be Diphtheria, polio and tetanus (combined booster), typhoid, Hep A, Cholera. If you are looking to save some pennies on your vaccines… Believe it or not, you can actually shop around for cut-price inoculations.

3. World diseases and vaccinations

jungle




Planning on ruffing it in the jungle? We wouldn’t blame for you feeling a little apprehensive when going overseas without your home comforts. A good way to keep the nerves at bay is to be fully prepped and armed with all the vital information before you leave home. Keep reading for a comprehensive list of the most common world diseases symptoms and treatment methods. Practice good hygiene and keep up-to-date with your vaccinations, you can head abroad with confidence!

  

mosquito bitesZika virus

On the 29th of January 2016 new warnings were released regarding the outbreak of the Zika Virus. The virus, transmitted through infected mosquito bites was reported in Tonga, the Dominican Republic and the US Virgin Islands, the virus is said to have spread to 24 nations and territories in the Americas. 

Symptoms: Mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and muscle pain, can cause birth defects in pregnant women. 

Treatment: No vaccine or medications are available to prevent or treat Zika infections. Treatment involves getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to prevent dehydration and taking medicine such as acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain. 

How to avoid: Prevention involves reducing mosquito populations and avoiding bites by using lots of deet mosquito spray.

 

 

mosquito bitesMalaria

Malaria affects a large number of people every year; between 300 million and 500 million are infected as the disease is passed from the bite of an infected mosquito. 

Symptoms: Victims suffer flu-like symptoms, including chills, nausea and muscle aches. Health risks include seizures, organ failures and even death. 

Treatment: Before travelling to any Malaria-prone region, your GP can prescribe you with malarial tablets to take throughout your trip. 

How to avoid: Cover up, use mosquito nets when you sleep and wear bug protection spray.

 

 

virustyphoid

Part of the Salmonella group; Typhoid Is a life-threatening disease that affects 12.5 million people each year. Precautions should be taken if visiting underdeveloped regions such as Asia, Latin America or Africa. Luckily, Typhoid isn’t found in countries such as the UK, Australia, New Zealand, the US or Japan. 

Symptoms: As given away in the name, Typhoid Fever victims suffer from fever-like symptoms. You could experience temperatures of up to 40° C – whilst stomach pain, headaches and a loss of appetite are common too. 

Treatment: Although deaths are rare. Typhoid Fever can be fatal. Having said that, treatment can be as simple as taking antibiotics and symptoms will subside after a few days. It’s essential to be wary of becoming a carrier, so when you get home it’s vital you see your GP. 

How to avoid: Typhoid bacterium is carried in the bloodstream and is contracted when eating or drinking contaminated substances. You’re more likely to stumble across it in countries where hand washing isn’t common or water is contaminated with sewage. Avoid food and drink that you suspect could be risky as the vaccine itself isn’t 100% effective!

 

 

injectiontetanus

Caused by the bacterium Clostridium Tetani, Tetanus can get into your body through an open wound such as a dog bite. Symptoms can include muscular aches and rigidity. Jabs are fairly common now and chances are you’ll have had one in early childhood. However, you should have your booster shots every 10 years, as the disease hasn’t completely disappeared. 

Symptoms: Tightness in the jaw, known as lock jaw. It can also be difficult to swallow, whilst neck stiffness and tightness in the abdominal muscles are common too. 

Treatment: Wound care, a course of antibiotics, and an injection of tetanus antitoxin are your top priorities. You may receive medications such as chlorpromazine or diazepam to control muscle spasms, or a short-acting barbiturate for sedation. 

How to avoid: Clean any cuts and scrapes and wash thoroughly with soap. You’ll also need to remove any dirt or debris, before cleaning and covering the wound with a bandage.

 

virusPolio (poliomyelitis)

Polio is the common name and this virus is found in contaminated food and water. Risky areas to avoid include Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. 

Symptoms: Commonly you’ll suffer a high fever, headaches, nausea and vomiting. Without treatment, Polio can quickly spread to the blood and nervous system. Older victims are more likely to suffer the devastating effects of Polio, with paralysis affecting less than 1 in 100 patients. There are other dangers too though and the respiratory system can be affected. Recovery from Polio can take up to a year. 

Treatment: The Polio jab is really effective and just like tetanus, you can have a booster every 10 years. 

How to avoid: Polio is commonly spread through close contact. Avoid crowded areas if possible, such as public transport and swimming pools. Check the WHO website to find a list of countries that have been certified as Polio-free.

 

virusHepatitus A

Hepatitis A is another viral disease caused from poor sanitation and hygiene. In underdeveloped countries, children are particularly at risk – but often don’t show any symptoms. It’s a completely different kettle of fish in developed countries. Hep A can be passed from one to another including close contact or contaminated food and drink. 

Symptoms: Occasionally there’ll be no symptoms at all, whereas the extreme is jaundice, liver failure or even death. More commonly though, Hepatitis victims will have fever-like symptoms including chills, weakness and loss of appetite. 

Treatment: You can also get a jab to protect against Hepatitis A, with boosters available too. Each should protect you for up to a decade. 

How to avoid: Like many other foreign diseases, it’s advised to be careful with the food and drink –avoid undercooked shellfish and raw fruit or vegetables. 

 

virusCholera

Cholera is caused by infection of the intestines through the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. The disease is common whereever sanitation levels are poor. For Cholera to become a threat to adults, around one million Vibrio Cholerae bacteria would have to have been ingested. For those with a weakened immune system though this could be less. Cholera is unfortunately high risk in natural disaster zones. Poor sanitary conditions can greatly increase the incidents of cholera. 

Symptoms: Effects range from mild all the way through to fatal, with dehydration, diarrhoea, cramps and vomiting common. 

Treatment: If you’re suffering Cholera-like symptoms, get medical help as quickly as possible. Treatment will likely include antibiotics and rehydration. Patients should try to take on board as much non-alcoholic fluid as possible – up to seven litres of water or more each day. 

How to avoid: Steer clear of undercooked or raw seafood. Chances are it may have come into contact with contaminated water. If you’re visiting a Cholera affected region, you can also have a vaccine to protect you.

 

virusmeningtis

Meningitis can be both a viral and bacterial infection affecting the brain and spinal cord. Viral Meningitis is often less severe though it requires specific treatment. On the other hand, Bacterial Meningitis is extremely dangerous. Patients can suffer from brain damage, a coma or even fatality. 

Symptoms: Common symptoms include fever, headache, a stiff neck and even rash. Other symptoms include sleepiness, discomfort from light and an onset of confusion. If you have Meningitis, symptoms will probably show themselves anytime from one or two hours to a few days after. It’s vital to get treatment asap though, as victims can suffer seizures and even slip into a coma. 

Treatment: Before travelling get a vaccine against the virus. Remember, if you’re worried you may have Meningitis, get medical help quickly (antibiotics are usually administered). Early treatment reduces the risk of death to less than 15%. Meningitis is particular dangerous to elderly patients. 

How to avoid: Avoid crowded areas such like public transport. Because Meningitis can easily be contracted, it’s common for epidemics to be a problem. Victims coughing or sneezing can trigger bacteria, which others will then breathe in, so keep covered up!

 

mosquito bitesDengue fever

It’s not just malaria those pesky Mozzies can give you. Up to 100 million people are affected each year with Dengue Fever. 

Symptoms: Headaches, pain and rashes, serous infections can also lead to bleeding from the nose and gums too. 

Treatment: Dengue fever vaccines are in development, but not yet available. Keep hydrated and take acetaminophen for pain relief. 

How to avoid: If you can, stay in air conditioned rooms, wear protective clothing and have plenty of mozzie spray at hand.

 

mosquito bitesFilariasis

The mosquitos are back once again, this time giving us the unsavoury parasitic disease Filariasis. 

Symptoms: Filariasis affects the lymphatic diseases and can have fairly gruesome consequences. After infection, microscopic worms travel into the lymph vessels. The bad news is there may not be symptoms, but there’ll be long term damage to your kidneys and lymphatic system. Untreated filariasis can also cause areas of your body to swell with fluid, leaving you in major discomfort. 

Treatment: No vaccine is currently available. Treating whole communities at once with albendazole and ivermectin has proven successful in the past. 

How to avoid: As above, prevention is key. Give those mozzies a hard time reaching your skin with loose fitting clothes, and make sure you sleep with a mosquito net at all times.

 

mosquito bitesLeishmaniasis

Moving away from Mozzies, we turn to Leishmaniasis. This is passed with the bite from a sand fly and infection can affect the skin or internal organs. 

Symptoms: Nasty symptoms include sores and even facial disfigurement and feverish symptoms. 

Treatment: No vaccines or drugs to prevent infection are available. Leishmaniasis patients will need hospital treatment as the spleen or liver can become enlarged and swollen. 

How to avoid: Avoid outdoor activities, especially from dusk to dawn, when sand flies generally are the most active. Use nets when you sleep, wear loose clothing and wear lots of DEET.

 

virusplague

Plague may call on distant history lessons of the 17th century right? Correct, but unfortunately it hasn’t yet been killed off. Plague is passed after being bitten by fleas in contact with rodents. 

Symptoms: Fever, cough, chills and pain. 

Treatment: Plague disease is a severe illness that can result in pneumonia, swollen glands, blood infection, and death. It can be fatal if untreated, so you’ll want antibiotics asap! 

How to avoid: More common in disaster stricken areas. Do not handle sick or dead animal bodies. But if you must, then use gloves plus face and eye protection. The same goes for rodents and their droppings. Avoid touching infected tissues, materials, or body fluids from a plague-infected person or animal.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Global vaccination map

The World Health Organisation’s database of vaccine requirements covers 193 countries. This map is coloured according to the number of distinct vaccine antigens required. The per-country average is a little over 10.
Click here for a fully functioning interactive map.

 

vaccine map

 

 

 

 

5. child vaccine considerations

child vaccine


Are the kids also coming on your tropical trip? Ensuring your little ones are vaccinated is even more important as their immune systems are not as strong as adults. When you visit your GP or travel clinic, it’s a good idea to ask them the following, depending on the age of your children:
 
question mark Are you pregnant?
Some vaccines are not safe to use in pregnancy, so its it’s vital to discuss any risks with your doctor or midwife before you travel. 
 

question mark  When to immunise new borns?
Has your baby been fully immunised yet? Depending on their age you may need to adjust their “immunisation timetable” to ensure they’re fully protected before travelling. 
 

question mark  Are you breastfeeding?
Although breastfeeding can boost a baby’s immunity, breastfeeding should not be considered a substitute for immunisation. 
 

question mark  Is your child over 6 months?
Ask your doctor what injections you should be considering now your baby is a bit older. At six months it’s recommended to administer an influenza shot as well as Hep B and IPV, as well as any secondary secondary vaccinations you may require. 
 

question mark  What age limits apply?
Age limits apply for certain vaccinations so discuss your travel options with your local travel clinic before you book your trip. 
 

question mark  Are you going to malarial destinations with kids?
Anti-malarial medication may be a little difficult to give to kids, but they are absolutely necessary. The tablets themselves won’t taste nice, so you can try crushing them up and include in food or drink.

 

 

 

6. vaccine planning

vaccine planning

Travel vaccinations are an essential part of holiday and travel planning. Follow these tips for perfect pre-prick planning!

  • leave enough time
  • Leave enough time

    If you know when you’re travelling abroad. Book in your jabs at least six weeks to two months before you . Don’t create a holiday disaster before you’ve even set foot out the door.

  • vaccine advice

  • Get the right advice

    The internet is full of information, but nothing beats a one-on-one with your local GP to make sure you’re booking in the right jabs for your chosen destinations

  • travel details
  • Take travel details with you

    Get organised adventurers! Make sure you know your itinerary and exactly when you’ll be visiting each destination so the doctor can give you the right vaccine planning advice.

  • first aid kit

  • Take a first aid kit with you

    If you’re in rural areas it might be difficult to get your hands on medication in a time of need! To avoid any disasters pack some supplies of your own such as: after sun, hydration tablets, Imodium, anti-itch cream, insect repellent, water purification tablets, sun cream, after sun, plasters and more!

7. useful links

Don’t just take our word for it! There are heaps more useful guides and resources out there for you. Here’s a few to help you on your way… 

NZ Safe Travel 
Health.govt.nz immunisation schedule 
10 Diseases With No Licensed Vaccine 
Tips To Stay Healthy Abroad 
Travel Immunisation Advice 
Travel Health Notices 
Traveller’s Diarrhoea 
World Health Organisation Vaccines & Diseases 
 

 

 

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